This is only part of the errors, since it is quite long, I will just quote the core part.
System.Web.HttpUnhandledException: Exception of type 'System.Web.HttpUnhandledException' was thrown. ---> System.InvalidOperationException: DataReader.GetFieldType(5) returned null.
This happens when I deploy a web application developed under Visual Studio .Net 2010 using SQL Server 2008 R2 for the database. The query used happen to retrieve fields of type hierarcyid. It works on other machines, this is the first time I encountered such error.
After searching through the internet, I found a solution in a thread on MSDN forum.
Seems that not only for table with field of CLR data type: hierarchyid, fields of Spatial type: geometry and geography also could result in such error.
Add the file C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\SDK\Assemblies\Microsoft.SqlServer.Types.dll to the project (as a reference), or simply copy the DLL file to the bin folder in which the project is deployed.
According to the post, it seems that the new SQL Server 2008 data types are not native .NET data types. On the machine where the application is deployed to, the DLL file was not available, so the DataAdapter can't initialize the data types correctly.